Inorganic Chemistry, Talk
If it can go wrong it will. Expect the unexpected!
D. Broggini1
1Janssen R&D, Pharmaceutical Development and Manufacturing Sciences, Small Molecule API Switzerland (Cilag AG)
There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know. Donald Rumsfeld

Question is: how do you foresee things you don’t know you don’t know?

During the development of a process for the preparation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient the unexpected can happen. A summary of the observations made over the last few years will be given: covering surprising contaminants in reagents to impurities affecting a catalytic step.